by Miller & Levine
[complete Table of Contents]
the pull-down menu to jump to any of the Book's 40 Chapters:
chapter, students will read about broad trends in the evolution of the
chordates and compare the adaptations of the major living groups of chordates.The
links below lead to additional resources to help you with this chapter.
These include Hot Links to Web sites related to the topics in this chapter,
the Take It to the Net activities referred to in your textbook, a Self-Test
you can use to test your knowledge of this chapter, and Teaching Links
that instructors may find useful for their students.
33-1: Chordate Evolution
The chordate family
tree has its roots in ancestors that vertebrates share with tunicates
Over the course
of evolution, the appearance of new adaptationssuch as jaws and
paired appendageshas launched adaptive radiation in chordate groups.
33-2: Controlling Body Temperature
The control of
body temperature is important for maintaining homeostasis in many vertebrates,
particularly in habitats where temperature varies widely with time of
day and with season.
Most fishes, amphibians,
and reptiles are ectothermsorganisms that obtain heat from outside
their bodies. Birds and mammals are endotherms, which means they can generate
heat inside their bodies.
33-3: Form and Function in Chordates
systems of vertebrates have organs that are well adapted for different
as tunicates, fishes, and amphibian larvaeuse gills for respiration.
Land vertebrates, including adult amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals,
During the course
of chordate evolution, the heart developed chambers and partitions that
help separate the blood traveling in the circulatory system.
chordates have a relatively simple nervous system with a mass of nerve
cells that form a brain. Vertebrates have a more complex brain with distinct
regions, each with a different function.
Muscular and skeletal
systems support a vertebrate's body and make it possible to control movement.